The cervix is part of female reproductive system. It is the lower end of the uterus and commonly referred as the neck of the womb.The cervix connect the upper part of the uterus to vagina.
The uterus has upper and lower part. The upper part is called as the body of uterus where the baby grows. The cervix is the lower part that connects the body of the uterus to the birth canal.
Cervical cancer begins in the lining of the cervix. It develops when normal cells begin to grow out of control and become abnormal. The cells changes are caused by the virus infection called Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The virus can be transferred by touch skin to skin during sexual activities.
Types of Cervical Cancer
There are two main types of Cervical Cancer :
- Squamous cell carcinomas
- The most common type of cervical cancer
- It develops from cells that lie on the surface of cervix known as squamous cells
- The second most common type of cervical cancer
- It develops in the grandular cells which are found in the cervical canal
|Cervical Cancer Risk Factors & Symptoms
It is important to know risk factors because the women who have these factors need to get regular Pap tests to detect cervical cancer earlier. The risk factors include :
- Infection by Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) that can spread from one part of the body to another
- Women who had many sexual partner or sexual activities at a young age
- Less care of vagina hygienic
- Women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV can damages the body's immune system and cause woman more exposed to HPV infection
- Having a family history of cervical cancer
- Smoking is not only can cause Cervical Cancer, the carcinogens in cigarettes can cause damage to the cervical cells
There are no obvious symptoms of cervical cancer at early stages. It is important to have regular screening Pap test so it can be detected earlier. There is variety of symptoms of cervical cancer including :
- Bleeding after menopause
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse
- Bleeding that occur between regular menstrual periods
- Pain during urination that usually occur when cancer has spread to the bladder
- Increased vagina discharge and smelly
- Pelvic pain at lower region during sexual intercourse
There are four stages of cervical cancer. The following stages are including :
The abnormal cells are found at the surface of the cervix. These abnormal cells may spread into nearby normal tissues
In stage I, cancer is found deeper in the cervix. It can divided into stages 1A and 1B that based on the amount of cancer
The cancer spread around the neck of womb but not to the pelvic wall. Stage 2 is divided into stages 2A and 2B based how far the cancer spread
In stage 3, the cancer spread into the pelvic wall that can cause kidney problems. It can divided into stages 3A and 3B based how far the cancer spread
The cancer spread into other body organs such as rectum, bladder and other. Stage 4 is divided into 4A and 4B based on where the cancer is found.