Lymphoma is a cancer type that involves immune system cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that circulate throughout in both of blood and lymphatic system. Lymphocytes protect our body against infections and the growth of tumors. The lymphocytes are divide into two main types, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes also known as B cells and T cells.
B cells (bones cells) are built in the bone marrow and respond to pathogens by producing antibodies which then neutralize foreign objects such as viruses and bacteria. T cells (Thymus cells) are located in the thymus which is situated in the chest between the heart and sternum. T cells can kill pathogens directly and play role in the mechanism of immune system control.
Lymphoma develop when lymphocytes cells are grow and multiply uncontrollably. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The following are differences between Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma :
- Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow that affects the lymphatic system
- Hodgkin lymphoma develops from an abnormal B lymphocytes cell
- One of the most curable forms of cancer
- There are five subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
- Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) develops in the lymph nodes and lymphatic tissues
- NHL has many different subtypes which are growing either slow or fast
- NHL develops from an abnormal B or T lymphocytes cells
Actually, the real causes of lymphoma are still not known. But, there are several factors that can increase the risk of developing lymphoma. However, it is not clear yet what role they play in the development of lymphoma. The risk factors are:
- Infections - the person who has HIV infection, Epstein-Barr Virus infection, Hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection, and also infection with a bacterium that lives in digestive tract.
- Exposure to the toxic chemicals - people who started to use the hair dye before 1980 has higher rates of lymphoma. Besides that, people who doing farm work and expose to toxic chemicals such as pesticide, benzene, or herbicides.
- Age - generally, the risk of lymphoma is increase with advancing age.
- Medical intake that affecting the immune system.
- Genetics - if the family has lymphoma history.
Symptoms of Lymphoma include:
2. Loss of appetite
3. Painless lumps in neck, groin, or armpits
4. Loss of weight
5. Itchiness all over the body
6. Sweat excessively at night
7. Shortness of breath together with swelling of face and neck
8. Often feel weak
If you experience some of the symptoms mentioned above, please consult your doctor immediately for an accurate diagnosis. Only experts can diagnose lymphoma symptoms properly.